Build a BOB: Useful Odds and Ends

On top of the mistakes listed above, there are a few things that I notice are missing from many if not most bug out bag content lists. While these items may not be utterly crucial to survival, they can sure make life a bit easier in an already stressful situation.

Knife sharpener
Knives and other blades are a no brainer for a bug out bag but few people think to toss in a small sharpener. A dull knife is far more dangerous to you than a sharp one.

Empty plastic bags
While many preppers pack their gear in plastic bags, which is an excellent idea, keeping several empty ones in your pack adds virtually no weight or bulk. The empty bags will come in handy for packing goodies you may find your travels, such as edible plants, tinder, or even water.

Hygiene supplies
Being able to clean up a bit is a great boost to morale as well as a way to stay healthy. Survival Resources has a great little hygiene kit for bug out bags. Or, make your own by tossing travel size toiletries (soap, toothbrush, toothpaste, dental floss) and a couple of washcloths into a ziploc bag.

Lip balm
Yeah, I know, it sounds so metrosexual but bugging out generally means you’ll be outdoors, exposed to the sun and wind, which leads to chapped lips. This can actually be a rather painful condition. Lip balm takes up almost no space in your bug out bag. Plus, if it is petroleum based, it can double as a way to help get a fire going.

Notepad and pencils

Whether it is used for trying to keep track of where you are and where you’ve been or for just collecting your thoughts, being able to jot down notes is an excellent, and again a low weight, addition to the bug out bag.

Sewing kit
A few needles and a spool or two of good thread will be very welcome after you’ve ripped out a pocket on your pants or torn a hole in your shirt. Duct tape works, too.

Zip ties
As far as I’m concerned, these are almost as handy as duct tape. They have a wide range of uses in a survival situation. I keep a bunch in different sizes in each of my packs.

Cash and coins
We often think of bugging out as running off to the woods. Odds are, though, that at least some of your journey will be through civilized portions of the country. It makes sense to have some cash on hand to make purchases, should the need and opportunity arise. Think about it like this – it is better to have it and not need it than to need it and not have it. Pack enough cash to get you a room at a midrange motel, someplace clean and that doesn’t charge by the hour. Add in a little more cover a meal or two and you should be good to go. Stick with small bills, nothing larger than a ten or twenty. Don’t forget a few dollars in change for vending machines.

Get caught up on the other installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes

Build a BOB: Common Mistakes

If you ask twenty different preppers what to have in a bug out bag, you’ll get twenty slightly different answers. That’s as it should be, because bug out bags need to be customized to suit individual needs. That said, in reviewing hundreds, if not thousands, of bug out bag lists and such, I see several mistakes happening again and again. Go through the following list and see if you’ve inadvertently fallen into one or more of these gaffes and learn what to do about it.

#1 — Overpacking

I’ve seen entirely too many bug out bags that are just massive. These monstrosities have everything up to and sometimes including the kitchen sink. The whole idea behind a bug out bag is to have a PORTABLE assemblage of gear and supplies. The absolute only way to determine if the bug out bag is the right size for you is to strap it on and walk around for at least a few hours. A couple of circuits around the living room just isn’t going to be a valid test. When, and I mean not if but when, you determine your bug out bag is too heavy to be comfortable for long periods of time, ditch everything but the absolute necessities, then build up from there.

#2 — Too Much Food

While we need calories to keep moving, many of us are already packing substantial calories around our waists. I’m not saying you shouldn’t pack any food. What I’m saying is that you can’t expect to lug around enough food to provide five course meals three times a day for every day you’re on the move. For the most part, your food should be the ready-to-eat variety. Stuff you can just unwrap and toss into your cake hole. A hot meal at the end of the day might be appreciated but it certainly isn’t a necessity. Toss in a few dehydrated or freeze-dried meals (brands and variety should be stuff you’ve tried previously and liked) along with the bare minimum for cooking and eating utensils. Learn how to forage so you can supplement your packed food while you travel.

#3 — Buying The Bag First

This is a bad approach, picking out a snazzy camo pack before deciding what it needs to hold. The problem is that many people pick out a bag that is much larger than they really need. This leads them to feel compelled to fill it to the brim, which of course circles back to #1 on our list here. Use logic and common sense here. Start by collecting all of the supplies you feel you’ll need in your bug out bag, then choosing a pack that is sized appropriately.

#4 — Not Enough Water Containers

Water is essential, we all know this. Yet, time and again I see bug out bags with nothing more than a single water bottle. While water is indeed heavy, you should have the means to transport at least two liters of water at any given time. Keep at least two separate containers for water in your bug out bag. This gives you options. For example, by having two steel water bottles, you can boil water in one (to disinfect it) while still being able to drink from the other one.

#5 — Cheaply Made Gear

Look, I’m all about prepping on a budget but if I’m staking my life on a piece of gear, I don’t want to rely on piece of junk that is shoddily made and might not work. Stick with reliable, well-known brand names when and where you can. Dollar store multi-tools just aren’t likely to hold up very well, know what I mean?

#6 — Untested Gear

You need to thoroughly test each and every item you are putting into your bug out bag. Know exactly how it works, what its capabilities are, and how to maintain it. Too many people buy stuff and just toss it into the bag without thinking twice. A bug out is not the best time to pull out the instructions and try and figure out how to assemble that nifty little camp stove…only to discover the guy at the factory was having an off day and forgot to include the bag of bolts you need.

#7 — Lack Of Foot Protection

If you are bugging out, odds are you will be on foot for part if not all of your journey. Walking long distances while wearing thin socks and dress shoes, or even worse, flip flops, can be murder on your feet. What I recommend is keeping a good pair of walking shoes or hiking boots (with socks rolled up inside) alongside your bug out bag. Grab them at the same time you grab the bag, then change your footwear at your earliest opportunity. Ditch the dress shoes or heels and move on down the road. In your bug out bag, keep at least two extra pair of thick socks as well. On top of that, add moleskin to your first aid kit to help with any blisters that may develop. Foot powder might not be a bad idea as well.

#8 — Over-Reliance on Multi-Purpose Items

Having items that can pull double or triple duty is a great way to cut down on the bulk in a bug out bag but I’ve always felt you should use the right tool for the right job. In other words, while it is great to have a 5-in-1 tool that has a whistle, compass, ferro rod, match case, whatever, recognize that it is dubious that it will do each of those jobs as well as items specifically made for those purposes. While you should always have at least 3 ways to accomplish basic tasks, such as fire lighting, try to stick with tools and equipment made for the purpose.

Get caught up on all installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes
Useful Odds and Ends

Save

Build a BOB: Choosing the Pack or Container

Okay, so you’ve invested countless hours researching and carefully selecting the contents of your BOB. Now what? Well, you need something to carry all of it, right? There are a few different solutions to consider.

Before we get into them, though, you need to take a real good look at your BOB contents. Take all of your treasures and plunk them in a pile on the bed or the floor. Odds are, it’ll be a pretty sizeable collection of goodies. Remember, the whole point of a BOB is that it is a portable collection of gear and supplies. Regardless of the pack or container you choose, will you realistically be able to carry all of the stuff you’ve collected? If not, start paring it down now.

Keeping the issue of portability firmly in mind, let’s look at some carry options.

Backpack

A backpack is more or less the traditional carry option for a BOB. For most people, a backpack is likely the best option. Provided you find a pack that works for you, it will be comfortable, sturdy, and it will allow you to keep your hands free as you walk. This is rather important as you may need to react quickly to a threat or even just a stumble and if one or both hands are full, you could have trouble.

One question you need to answer before you begin searching for a pack is whether you want to go with one that is military surplus (or at least looks like mil-surp) or a more civilian looking model. Personally, I tend to lean toward the latter, though really there isn’t a right or wrong answer here. It is just a matter of personal preference. I feel that a civilian pack might be seen as less likely to contain truly awesome supplies and gear and therefore not be as much of a target to someone else.

While military grade packs are typically very durable, that doesn’t always translate to comfort. Honestly, choosing a pack is something best done in person. Head to a decent sporting goods store, one that has a large camping section, and try out a few packs. Even if you don’t buy one there, you’ll hopefully come away with some idea of what you like and what you don’t like in a pack.

One thing I look for is compartmentalization. I want several pockets inside and outside the pack to help me keep things organized. Having all the gear with you is great but being able to find what you need when you need it is even better.

I like thickly padded shoulder straps as well as a chest strap and possibly one at the waist. The idea is to keep the pack from sliding all over the place as you walk. When you try packs on for size, be sure to do up all the straps and adjust them for a proper fit. The store staff should be able to assist in that regard, which is another reason to stick with actual sporting goods stores and not just the couple of aisles of camp gear you find at other big box retailers.

You want a pack that is large enough to fit all of your gear and not much bigger. Why? Because I can all but guarantee that when you fill your pack and start testing it out, you’re going to find you’ve overpacked and you’ll start cutting down on gear. A little empty space in your pack is great. Having it only a third full means you should get a smaller pack.

My personal favorite backpack is the Vertx EDC Gamut Plus. I’ve carried one daily for well over a year now and find it very comfortable. It is large enough to carry all I need without looking like I’m packing for an African safari.

Duffel Bag

Duffel bags can be used for BOBs as well. You can find duffels with all sorts of pockets to allow for organizing your gear, which is great. The problem, though, is they can be uncomfortable to carry for long periods of time, especially if they have significant weight inside. The shoulder strap will help, of course, but you might find that to be downright painful after several miles.

If you don’t use the shoulder strap, you’ll constantly have one hand occupied. This can lead to problems on the trail as well as discomfort. I’m not saying duffel bags make horrible BOBs. Well, actually, yeah, I am saying that duffels make horrible BOBs.

Wheeled Suitcase

I’ve seen some people packing wheeled suitcases to use for BOBs. You know the type I’m talking about, the suitcases people tend to use for overnight trips. They have a slide out handle and you pull them along. Here’s the thing with these bags. Those wheels work great on nice, even, flat terrain like concrete and carpet. You get them off the pavement, though, and they don’t roll very well.

On top of that, these suitcases are bulky and aren’t the lightest things in the world even when empty. They are difficult and problematic to carry for long periods of time if they won’t roll. I’d avoid them.

Shoulder Bag

These are different than duffel bags. This type of pack is designed to fit comfortably over one shoulder. This model by UTG is a good example. These can be comfortable, even over long distances. But, they don’t have a lot of space so you are very limited in what you can carry. As the saying goes, the more you know the less you need to carry but I think even very experienced survivalists might want something a bit larger than this for a long-distance bug out.

Once you’ve purchased your pack or bag, take it home and fill it up with your gear. Strap it on and walk around for a while. A couple of circuits of your living room isn’t going to be enough. Get outside and go for a walk. See how the pack or bag rides on your body. Make adjustments to the straps or the contents until you get everything situated where you want it.

As you organize the contents, keep things you’ll need frequently in readily accessible locations, such as outer pockets. For example, keep your ferro rod and other primary fire making supplies easy to reach as one of the first things you’ll usually do when setting up camp is get a fire started. First aid kit should also be easy to locate as if there is a medical emergency you won’t want to waste time dumping out the entire pack to find what you need.

I like to use small pouches and watertight boxes to keep my supplies and gear separate and organized. Even pencil pouches found on the cheap during back to school season work well to keep things easy to find in your BOB.

Care and Feeding of Your BOB

Unpack and inspect the contents regularly to ensure nothing is broken or leaking. I suggest once every three months, at a minimum, to completely empty and repack the BOB. Give it a visual inspection about once a month where you just peek in and make sure everything is still there.

Rotate out the perishable supplies, such as food and batteries, regularly so they get used before they expire.

Adjust the contents of the BOB to reflect the season as needed. I keep a knit hat, wool socks, and thick gloves in my BOB year round but I’ll add in other cold weather gear in the fall. Come spring, I take that stuff out and pack it away in the house.

Your BOB is a personal thing. It should reflect your needs, your skill sets, and your experience level. Don’t be afraid to adjust the contents of the BOB as you learn new skills or invest in additional gear.

Get caught up on all installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes
Useful Odds and Ends

Save

Build a BOB: Tools

The ability to make and use tools is sometimes seen as an indicator of the intelligence of a species. While humans aren’t the only animals on the planet that makes tools, we are the only ones that will go into debt to buy new shiny stuff. I mean, when was the last time you saw a crow whip out a Visa card?

Once upon a time, all of the tools we used were fashioned by hand from natural materials. Rocks with sharp edges were cutting tools. Grass or sinew was twisted and woven into cordage. Animal bones were made into needles and other implements. While the skill and knowledge to do those sorts of things is still valuable and could certainly be of use, most of us tend to lean more toward carrying a few manufactured tools. In a true crisis, having a hank of paracord or bank line beats the hell out of trying to find appropriate natural materials and spending time twisting your own cordage.

Tools can be problematic, though. If we’re bugging out with a vehicle, weight and bulk of our tools is largely a non-issue. However, if we end up on foot, that’s a whole different matter. While you’re welcome to pack an entire workshop full of tools in the back of your truck, that’s not all going to fit into your BOB should you have to resort to shank’s mare.

With that in mind, here are the tools many would agree are must-haves in your BOB.

Knife

A good knife is going to be one of your best friends in a bug out scenario. A million and one uses as they used to say on late night TV. While even a simple kitchen paring knife is better than no knife at all, something a little more robust might be worth the investment. Here are several recommendations, based on budget constraints:

Bare bones – Mora Companion
At the time of this writing, under $11 on Amazon

Low to mid range – Condor Bushlore
At the time of this writing, around $36 on Amazon

Pretty nice and still under $100 – Schrade 42D Frontier
At the time of this writing, about $45 on Amazon

Willing to spend a bit more for something that will truly last – Bark River Gunny
$150 and up, depending on handle material and other options

Got some money to invest in something nice – LT Wright GNS
Currently, $180 or so.

To go into all the details you should consider when choosing a knife would take far more space than we have here. That said, here are just a few pointers:

You probably don’t need a huge Rambo style knife. You want something you can easily control. Shoot for a blade length of 4” to 5” or so.

A carbon steel blade is usually desired as it holds a great edge without being a bear to sharpen. However, they tend to rust if unprotected so be sure to oil the blade. If you’ll be spending time near saltwater or in very wet environments, consider stainless steel.

Don’t overlook the importance of a secure sheath. Most of them today are either leather, kydex, or nylon. Of the three, I personally favor leather but I’m also something of a traditionalist. Kydex is a great option that is largely unaffected by temperatures or water.

One more thing about knives. Don’t forget to pack a sharpener. A dull blade is far more dangerous to you than a sharp one. With a dull blade, you’ll have to force the cut with more pressure, which could cause you to slip and hurt yourself or someone else.

Cordage

As I said at the outset, it is certainly possible to craft your own cordage in the field but doing so is time-consuming. Quite often, if you need cordage, you need it NOW, not an hour or more from now. You’ll use it to build shelters, repair clothing, lash things to your pack, set snares, and dozens of other ways.

The two primary types of cordage used by preppers and survivalists are paracord and bank line. For those unfamiliar, paracord is about as thick as an athletic shoelace and extremely strong. It is often referred to as 550 cord because genuine paracord will support up to 550lbs. It is constructed of a nylon sheath with several thin cords inside. What this means is you can remove one or more of those thin strands if needed. For example, paracord is too thick to mend a tear in a pack but you could use one of those thin strands could do the trick.

Tarred bank line is a nylon twine covered in a layer of tar. This isn’t a messy as it sounds, don’t worry. It comes in different thicknesses. #18 bank line is pretty thin, perfect for snares and such. #36 is about double the thickness but also double the strength. One great thing about tarred bank line is that it sticks to itself so knots don’t come undone.

One great way to store cordage in your bug out bag so it doesn’t get all tangled is to wrap it around an old gift card. You can find the full instructions here.

I like to have both paracord and bank line in my BOB. Cordage is light and it is easy to pack a lot of it in a small space.

Another type of cordage I keep on hand is braided fishing line. I prefer this over the monofilament kind, even though it is a bit more expensive. Braided fishing line is great for making clothing repairs as well as landing dinner. Grab a sewing bobbin and wrap your fishing line around it for safe keeping. Or, you could put together the world’s smallest fishing kit, found here.

Duct tape could be lumped in with cordage, too, I reckon. Duct tape is indispensable and, like the other types of cordage, is lightweight and easily stored. Wrap it around a gift card or a pencil stub and you’re good to go. Word to the wise, duct tape is very flammable and could work as tinder in a pinch.

Needle

If you get a tear in your pants or your pack, a needle is a necessity for making repairs. It weighs virtually nothing and needles are very cheap. Get a few and stash them throughout your BOB. Cover them in duct tape or something so you don’t get poked.

Multi-Tool

Multi-tools are like knives in that you need to find one you feel is comfortable to hold and use. The size of your hand is a factor here. Multi-tools are one of those things, too, that can quickly add noticeable weight to your BOB. The Gerber Dime is about the smallest multi-tool I’d suggest and, really, it’ll probably do just about anything you’d need a multi-tool to accomplish. See, here’s the thing about multi-tools. Like most gear that is designed for multiple purposes, it can do a lot of stuff but it can’t do a lot of stuff well. Meaning, it’ll work in a pinch to loosen a screw or strip a wire but you’d not want to try doing any major repairs with one. A needle-nose pliers is not a great tool for loosening or tightening bolts and nuts.

Saw

A small folding saw will do just about anything you’d use the hatchet for when bugging out. A Silky Pocketboy will meet your needs well, I reckon. Lightweight, yet will cut a ton. Personally, I say pass on the hatchet. The point of bugging out is to get to your bug out location as quickly and efficiently as possible. You’re not going to be building any large, made-to-last shelters. You can use your knife to baton and/or your saw to process firewood. I’m just not a fan of swinging a sharp blade around if I don’t have to, especially when I’m already tired after a long day of travel. A hatchet adds weight that you really don’t need.

Flashlight

A flashlight or headlamp will be a treasured item in your BOB. I recommend both. My favorite flashlight is the Streamlight ProTac 1AAA. It is small and very powerful. Be sure to pack an extra battery, too. As for a headlamp, I’m partial to this one by Coast. Extremely bright and very comfortable to wear. It is kind of pricey, though. A headlamp is important because it allows you to keep both hands free to work. But, I don’t like wearing one for long periods of time and find a small flashlight just plain handy to have.

Pry Bar

I go back and forth with whether to pack a pry bar. To me, it depends upon your typical area of operation. I would think a pry bar would get far more use in an urban environment than out in the sticks. In the city, you may need to open a door or window and a pry bar would be great to have in that regard. Give it some thought and decide whether it is worth the weight and bulk to carry one. If you decide to have one in your BOB, stick with something small, like this one.

Plastic Bags

While I don’t know that you could really call plastic bags tools, they are very handy. Toss in a few sandwich bags, the kind that zip closed. They are great for keeping tinder or foraged food dry and protected. As you travel, you’ll no doubt find little odds and ends you’ll want to keep for later use. Plastic bags can help in that regard.

When building your BOB, select your tools carefully. You want quality and durability, not just an inexpensive price. Remember, you may very well be betting your life on the tools you pack.

Get caught up on all installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes
Useful Odds and Ends

Save

Build a BOB: Signaling and Communication

At first, you might wonder why you’d want signaling gear in your BOB. After all, isn’t the point of bugging out to get away from most other people? Well, sure, but consider that we have no idea what the future holds. First of all, many people take their BOB with them everywhere they go. After all, what’s the point of assembling all this great stuff if you don’t have it with you when you need it, right? Let’s say, for example, you take your BOB with you on a day hike. Things go awry and you find yourself in desperate need of assistance. Thankfully you took a moment to stash a few signal tools in your BOB, just in case.

Even in an actual bug out situation, there may be instances where you need to send a message to someone and radio or phone might not be viable options.

Fortunately, the tools I recommend for signaling are small, lightweight, and easy to use. You could add several options to your BOB without appreciably increasing the weight or bulk of the pack.

Whistle

The first is a good quality, very loud whistle. A whistle is far louder than your voice, even at full “eldest child just ran the car into the side of the garage” volume. Plus, blowing a whistle isn’t going to strain your vocal cords and make you even more miserable.

Look for plastic whistles rather than metal. The latter tends to cause issues in very cold weather. Remember the flagpole incident in A Christmas Story?

Whistles come in two basic types. The traditional type of whistle has a small ball, called a pea, inside. The more modern type lacks this pea. It is easy enough to determine which is which. Shake the whistle and if you hear something rattling around inside, that’s going to be the pea. Opt for a pea-less whistle. In cold conditions, the moisture in your breath could end up freezing the pea to the side of the whistle, making the whole thing rather worthless.

I recommend a minimum of two whistles. One should be on a breakaway lanyard around your neck every time you head off into the wild. The other is your backup and should be in your BOB. Three short blasts is the universal signal for help.

Signal mirror

Next on the list is a signal mirror. To use, you hold the mirror out and angle it in such a way that it catches the sun’s rays. Hold your other arm outstretched with your palm facing outward. Line up the reflection coming from the mirror so you can see it on the back of your outstretched hand. Make the peace sign with the first two fingers of your hand and turn the mirror slightly back and forth so the reflection falls between your fingers. Line that V up with your target and you’re good to go.

In a pinch, a CD or DVD can serve as a signal mirror.

Glow stick

Of course, the signal mirror is only going to be effective during the day and even then only when you have strong sunlight. At night, you can use a glow stick (also known as cyalume snap sticks) and some cordage to reach out for help. Tie the glow stick to the end of a hank of paracord or bank line, maybe 2-3 feet long. Snap the glow stick and shake to activate it. Then, twirl it in front of you, making a large glowing circle. This can be seen for quite a ways off.

Rescue laser

A rescue laser is more than a little different from the laser pointers you may have used to torment your cat. The rescue laser is designed to grab the attention of both search and rescue on the ground as well as in the air. The way it works is it shoots out a laser in the shape of an expanding fan, rather than a single dot. At 8 miles away, that fan is 3,000 feet wide! You use it somewhat like you do a signal mirror. Shine the laser on your outstretched hand, then line it up through a V you make with your fingers. Sight your target through the V and press the button.

Rescue lasers are a bit more expensive than signal mirrors or whistles but they are definitely effective.

Communication

If you will be bugging out as a family or small group, the means to communicate with one another is critical. Plans change and sometimes those changes will happen on the fly and, as a result, will need to be communicated down the line so everyone is on the same page.

Cell phones

Cell phones may or may not be viable options. All depends on the catastrophe at hand. You can probably count on voice calls being off the table, so to speak. Cell networks quickly become overloaded in a crisis. Sometimes, though not always, text messages can get through even when voice calls cannot.

If you’re able to get online, you could use Facebook, Twitter, or another social media’s private message features to communicate with each other. But again, that’s an iffy thing.

CB Radio

CB radio is an option. They are easy to install in vehicles and there are handheld models as well. However, they are far from private and the range is somewhat limited. Figure about five miles or so, maybe more if the terrain is rather flat.

FRS and GMRS

FRS and GMRS handheld radios are another way to go. FRS stands for Family Radio Service and GMRS stands for General Mobile Radio Service. They work in similar manners and are very much like the walkie-talkies you may have played with as a child, though more powerful. While the range won’t be anywhere near what the package claims, they work well for short distances of a couple of miles, depending on terrain.

Ham Radio

Ham radio is something to seriously consider. Handheld radios like the ever-popular Baofeng UV-5R work great. However, the use of ham radios to transmit is subject to licensure. While the FCC might not be cracking down on unlicensed operators during a true emergency, you might find other operators less than helpful if they learn you are unlicensed. Further, you need the license to practice using your equipment ahead of the catastrophe.

At the very least, consider adding a small crank radio to your BOB. While you won’t be able to use it for two-way communication, you can use it to gather information on the situation. The more information you have, the better off you’ll be when it comes to making decisions.

With any powered communication tool, you’ll need extra batteries as well as a way to charge batteries when they get low. I highly recommend the Greenivative saltwater battery charger as one option. Another is to invest in a small portable solar panel like those offered by Goal Zero.

Get caught up on all installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes
Useful Odds and Ends

Save

Build a BOB: Navigation

The goal of bugging out is to reach a safe location, such as your predetermined bug out location (BOL) as quickly, safely, and efficiently as possible. That could be considerably hampered should you end up lost along the way.

Part of bug out planning involves selecting primary and alternate routes to reach your destination. Those routes should be practiced, too, on a regular basis. Travel them during the day and at night, in all four seasons, so you can recognize landmarks and such easily. For many people, they already know the BOL area intimately as it is the neighborhood where they grew up or perhaps it is a favorite family vacation spot. Assuming the normal roads are available, they’ll have no problem finding their way there.

Ah, but therein lies the rub, as they say. That’s a mighty big assumption. Could be the roads are impassible due to damage resulting from the event itself. Could be vehicles aren’t working because of EMP (Electromagnetic Pulse) or CME (Coronal Mass Eruption). Could be no one is moving any time soon due to traffic. Granted, the hope is that you’ll get out ahead of the crowd, owing to your increased awareness of world events and such. But, even the best laid plans of mice and men and all that, y’know?

However it happens, it is not out of the realm of possibility that you’ll find yourself in an unfamiliar area and unsure where to go from there. When you get right down to it, there are essentially only three different navigation tools to consider: maps, compass, and GPS.

Maps

Honestly, there is no excuse to not have maps of the applicable areas in your BOB. They are fairly cheap, some are even free. Heck, you could print some off on your computer, too. There are two different kinds of maps, at least as far as we’re concerned. Street maps are the ones pretty much everyone has used at one point or another. As the name would suggest, the street map details the highways and byways of a given area. Depending upon the map’s scale, it may include landmarks and such as well.

The other type is topographic. Instead of streets and roads, this type of map will detail rivers, hills, and other terrain. Topo maps will indicate elevation of the land features. In general, topo maps are more detailed than street maps but both are useful when bugging out. In my experience, topo maps tend to give people more difficulty than street maps, if only because of a lack of familiarity.

Map reading has become something of a lost art in today’s world of GPS and other computer aids. Heck, back in my day, map reading was still taught in school (cue the old man shaking his cane and hollering at the kids to get off his lawn). Nowadays, folks just haul out their cell phones, plug in an address, and listen to the turn by turn directions they’re given.

The hardest part of map reading can be figuring out where you are on said map. Once you determine that and your end point, everything else sort of falls into place. Quite literally, it is just a matter of connecting the dots. Of course, everything looks easier on paper. Translating that route to the road in front of you can be troublesome until you’ve gained some experience in doing so.

There are many who would suggest that drawing or highlighting the different routes to your BOL is a bad idea, just in case the map were to be lost or taken from you. There is some logic in that thought process. You want to keep your BOL as secure as possible and that would include not broadcasting its location in this manner. I guess the way I look at it, you should be familiar and comfortable enough with your maps that you can easily find your BOL on them without needing a highlighter, push pin, or marker.

Once you know your start and end points, figure out the best route to connect the two. Today, depending upon the distance, that route will likely involve highways and possibly interstates. Post-collapse, you’ll want to avoid those as much as possible. Your bug out routes should take you around the larger concentrations of people, which will include those major arteries of our traffic system.

This is why topo maps are important. At least some of your journey may be overland, cutting through fields, parks, forests, and such. A topo maps will help you stay on track. Worth mentioning, of course, is the risk you take setting foot on someone else’s property. Depending on the circumstances, this could be extremely dangerous. If you must then you must, but travel as quickly and quietly as possible.

Obtain maps of your local area as well as the areas through which you will likely travel on your way to your BOL. The more detailed the maps, the better. Don’t just rely on an old road atlas. Either buy them laminated or laminate them yourself. They’ll hold up a lot longer that way.

Maps will always have a compass rose on it. This is the symbol that shows you which direction the map is north. Of course, that’s really only useful information if you can determine which way is north in the real world as you’re standing there with the map in your hand.

Compass

There are two ways to use a compass – alone or in conjunction with a map. I know that sounds kind of obvious but I bring it up because the way in which the compass is going to be used will determine the type of compass you should have in your bug out bag.

The basic purpose of a compass is to tell you which way is north. If you know one compass direction, you can easily find the others, right? If you are facing directly north and stretch out your arms, your right hand is pointing east, your left hand is pointing west, and south is staring at your butt.

Now, before we go any further, we need to talk a little bit about magnetic north versus map north. Almost all maps are laid out such that the top of the map is north. That’s all well and good for consistency but your compass isn’t going to point directly north as indicated on those maps. This can cause an issue if you’re trying to closely follow a map to your destination and counting on your compass to keep you on track. The difference between map north and true magnetic north is called declination. Determining your declination allows you to adjust your compass reading so you stay on track.

Adjusting your compass for declination and related topics are well beyond the scope of our discussion here. What I suggest is you grab a snack and sit down to watch several of the great videos done by John McCann from Survival Resources. He’s very well-versed in orienteering and you’ll learn a ton in a short time with his videos. You can find them here:

Survival Resources Navigation Articles and Videos

There are several types of compasses but there are only two styles that I would recommend for your bug out bag. The first is the button compass. This is the cheapest, smallest, most no frills type of compass you’ll find. It consists of a small, liquid filled disk with the needle and indicators inside. Button compasses are measured in millimeters, with 14mm and 20mm among the most common sizes. This is the measurement from side to side. A button compass is rather thin, too.

You can find button compasses as standalone products but they are also often incorporated into things like zipper pulls for jackets or watchbands.

A button compass is really only useful for giving you a general idea of direction. They are not precision instruments at all. Basically, the button compass is a great tool if you already pretty much know where you are and in what direction you need to move. For example, you were out hiking in a state park and got turned around. You know there is a highway that runs along the entire western boundary of the park. You can use the button compass to keep you moving in a westerly direction until you hit pavement.

There have been some reports here and there of button compasses not working at all or pointing in an entirely wrong direction. For this reason, be sure to check your button compass and make sure it is working properly before putting it into your kit.

The second type of compass I recommend is called an orienteering compass. A good one will not only have a clear base to allow for easy map reading but it will have a small magnifying glass in the base and a hinged lid with a mirror. The magnifying glass not only helps with reading the small print on a map but it can be used to focus the sun’s rays to start a fire in a pinch. The mirror is used to assist with sighting as you plot your course.

Again, you’ll need far more knowledge that I can impart in this limited space when it comes to orienteering and such. Watch John McCann’s videos linked above and seek out additional resources to learn this critical skill.

GPS

GPS stands for Global Positioning System. We tend to take GPS for granted these days. I mean, we hop in the car, fire up our Garmin or whatever, and within a few minutes we have a voice guiding us from doorstep to doorstep. Of course, we don’t need the vehicle’s GPS as Google Maps and other apps are right there on our phones. There are also moderately priced standalone GPS units designed for use out in the bush. These don’t work in quite the same way your vehicle or phone does, though. You’ll need to get out there and do some practicing to get the hang of them.

GPS is fun to play with and if you’ve never gone geocaching, you must give it a try. It combines GPS based orienteering with hiking into a scavenger hunt of sorts. It is a great way to get outdoors and practice using your GPS unit.

Depending upon the nature of the catastrophe, GPS may or may not be a viable navigation option. EMP, for example, could render your cell phone and your GPS unit(s) inoperative. On top of that, some would say there are concerns about groups or entities using your GPS against you, using the technology to track you. Of course, there is also the question of powering your unit. Do you want to lug extra batteries around?

Here’s my suggestion. GPS is a great tool and can be a wonderful convenience. However, don’t rely on GPS alone. Be sure to invest the time and energy into learning how to properly navigate with a map and compass. Pick up a decent Silva or Suunto brand compass from Survival Resources while you’re there learning what you can about orienteering. Then, get outside and spend some serious time practicing.

Being able to navigate from point A to point B is an important survival skill. There’s a lot involved with this skill set. You can’t expect to just grab a map and compass and be successful on a long trip without some practice, at least not if traveling by foot over land as opposed to following streets and highways. You’ll get there, though, if you stick with it and devote the time.

Get caught up on all installments in this series here:
Introduction
Shelter
Fire
Water
Food
First aid / Hygiene
Navigation
Signaling and Communication
Tools
Choosing the Pack or Container
Common Mistakes
Useful Odds and Ends

#HorrorShow100 Podcast Telethon

Scares that Care is a 501(c)(3) charitable organization that provides assistance for families dealing with childhood illness, burns, or breast cancer. It is truly a wonderful group of people doing some great work. I know a few people involved with the organization. One of them, author Brian Keene, is running an online telethon of sorts later this week. They will be broadcasting live for 24 hours straight, with the goal being to raise at least $10,000 for Scares that Care. You can tune in to the shenanigans here.

I’d really like to help them hit that goal so here’s the deal. I’m going to run a little giveaway contest in conjunction with their fundraising efforts. The prize? A custom fire kit made by yours truly. It will include, at the minimum:

–A ferro rod and striker
–Wet Fire Cubes
–Char cloth and a tin for making more
–Other homemade fire starters
–Small knife
–Other goodies I find and toss in.
–All contained in a nice belt pouch.
–Because it is me, I’ll probably toss in a book or two as well.

Here’s how to win. Visit the Scares that Care website and send them a donation. Take a screenshot that shows the donation. Feel free to black out or otherwise obscure any personal information. All I need to see is your name and proof you donated something. Any amount is acceptable. Donate any time between now and Saturday night (11:59PM Central, Jan 28). Send me the screenshot via email (jim@survivalweekly.com) no later than Monday, Jan 30, 12:00 noon. I’ll draw one winner at random from all qualifying entries. Winner will be contacted via email. Good luck!

2017 SW Hike Challenge

As some of you are aware, in 2016 my wife and I challenged ourselves to get outside and go for a hike at least once a week for the entire year. For us, it wasn’t a matter of distance nor time. Rather, it was just wanting to commit to getting outside more, getting some fresh air, and spending some time with each other. Our shortest hikes were less than a mile and our longest was over 25 miles. While it wasn’t always easy to work it into our schedules, we did manage to pull it off and never missed a week the entire year.

I’m challenging you to do the same in 2017. And, I’ll try to make it worth your while, too.

At least once a week, get outside and go for a walk. I don’t care if it is a 20 mile trek or 2 blocks. The idea is to spend some time outdoors and getting a little exercise. Take at least one photo during each hike and post them on Facebook. Use the hashtag #2017SWHikes when you post so I can find them easily. At least once a month, hopefully even more often, I’ll pick one of those posts and send the person some sort of prize. Could be a book, a DVD, a knife, or some sort of gear. Depends on what I have sitting in the prize vault at the time.

Post as many photos each week as you’d like but only one photo per person per week will count in the contest. There may be additional prizes for coolest, funniest, or most dramatic photos, too.

It all starts with a single step. Get out there and see the sights, folks. Remember to post your pics with the hashtag #2017SWHikes!

Workplace Emergency Kit

Let’s face it. Many of us spend upwards of a third of our lives at work. With that many hours spent on the clock, odds are that at least once or twice in your working life you’re going to have some sort of emergency situation crop up while you’re at work. That being the case, it just makes sense to assemble a small workplace emergency kit to keep on hand.

What we’re talking about here is a small collection of stuff that will serve to make you more comfortable should you need to spend the night at work. Road conditions can go south in a hurry, especially in the winter, and you may be better off just hunkering down at your desk until road crews can get things cleaned up.

I know, I know, you already have a bug out bag or get home bag, right? Why would you need even more stuff stashed at work when you have that pack in your vehicle? If you can’t think of any reason why you wouldn’t have access to the BOB or GHB in your car, you simply lack imagination. Some people aren’t able to park immediately adjacent to their workplace and instead use lots or structures that might be several blocks away. In bad weather or during civil unrest, you might not want to make that trek.

And, y’know what? Murphy’s Law dictates that the one time you have your car in the shop and forget to grab your BOB from the trunk will be the day that the skies open up and dump 14” of snow right after lunch.

The point is, redundancy is key to emergency preparedness. The stuff we’re putting in our workplace emergency kit isn’t going to be pricey. In fact, you likely have most of it sitting at home already.

Food and water

Remember, we’re only talking about spending the night, not hiking off into the wilderness for weeks at a time. A few dollars for the vending machines is great but they might not be working if the power goes out. Or, you might get there too late and they’ll already be ransacked, leaving just that one questionable tuna sandwich in the Wheel of Death.

A package of trail mix, a couple of granola bars, that sort of thing should suffice. Stick to things that don’t need to be heated. Junk food is perfectly fine for an evening.

Toss in a couple of bottles of water to wash it all down. Adding in a good water filter, such as a Katadyn Hiker, wouldn’t be the worst idea, just in case something is affecting the plumbing system at work and the water becomes questionable. If you want a more inexpensive filter, go with a Sawyer.

Warmth

Bedding down at work is no one’s idea of a fun time. That said, you can make things a little more comfortable for yourself by adding to your kit a small fleece blanket. They go on sale incredibly cheap around Christmas. Over the years, we’ve bought several and keep them in our vehicles, at work, and around the house. They aren’t huge, usually like 4’ x 5’ or so, but plenty big enough for keeping off the chill while you snooze.

I practically live in hooded sweatshirts from September through March so I added one to my kit. I just find them really comfortable. You might consider sweatpants and thick socks, especially if your job requires business attire. No one wants to spend the night in a suit and tie.

Tools

Wanna be the hero of the office in an emergency? Be the person with the flashlight. Many workplace, especially office buildings, have a distinct lack of windows. In a power outage, things get really dark fast. Just finding your way to the bathroom and back can be fraught with peril. If windows are available, be sure to open interior doors to allow the limited light to filter in.

I suggest a minimum of two lights, preferably three. A headlamp keeps your hands free while you do what you need to do, of course. A second flashlight is your backup. The third light is a cheap one that you can hand out without being too concerned if it never gets back to you. I like this Coast model for the headlamp and the Streamlight ProTac HL USB for my flashlight. That latter is pricey but oh, so awesome. Of course, I always have my ProTac 1AAA in my pocket, too, as part of my EDC load out.

Naturally, a spare set of batteries is wise.

I’m of the opinion that every kit, no matter the intended purpose or the size, should have a knife in it. Consider it a superstition if nothing else, okay? Depending on where you work and who you work with, whipping out something like an LTWK GNS might not go over very well. Keep it low key and just toss in a decent folding knife. You probably have one in your pocket or on your belt already. Like I said before, redundancy. In this case, I’ve added an Ontario RAT folding knife. Small, unobtrusive, and scalpel sharp.

First aid kit

Most workplaces have at least one first aid kit hanging on a wall somewhere. Don’t count on it being well stocked nor up to date. Take the time to assemble a few of your own medical supplies for your kit. Include things like pain relievers (ibuprofen, etc.), anti-diarrhea meds, antacids, and a box of adhesive bandages. Go as in depth as you want, though, and add what you feel might be necessary. Better to have it and never need it than need it and not have it.

Entertainment

It is better to assume the power will go out and you won’t have access to the Internet, then be pleasantly surprised, rather than to count on Facebook and Netflix to entertain you and be disappointed. Reading material is always a good idea. But, remember what we said about lighting. If the power goes out and you’re deep inside an office building, you’ll need a flashlight or some other illumination tool in order to see your book or magazine.

Consider investing in a portable power pack for your cell phone. Even if something goes awry with the cell signal, you’ll still be able to play a game if you have one installed. There are also any number of handheld games you can buy fairly cheap at toy stores. Find one you like and toss it into your kit, along with a spare set of batteries.

A deck of cards makes for good fun, either by yourself or with your coworkers. Now is probably not the time, though, to try and fleece Joe from Accounting using your mad poker skills.

A small radio, preferably one that is crank powered, will not only help keep you entertained but it will help keep you informed about the situation at hand.

Container

Store all of your workplace emergency gear in an unobtrusive canvas shopping bag or a duffel of some sort. The idea is to hide it in plain sight, more or less. Keep it under your desk or in your locker. If someone sees a shopping bag like this, they won’t think twice about it. On the other hand, coworkers might become intrigued by a tactical, or tacticool, pack.

The workplace emergency kit isn’t a run off to the hills and live off the land sort of deal. Rather, it is there to help you get comfortable if you end up having a slumber party with a few coworkers when the weather, or demonstrating crowds, have turned frightful.

How far can you walk?

If you had to bug out right now, in your current physical condition, how far could you go on foot in a day? I don’t mean under the weight of a heavy pack or while trying to dodge someone who might be tracking you. I mean, how far do you think you could you make it in a single day if you had to do it, say, tomorrow?

Near where we live is a large lake. It is about 8 square miles in size, so while not huge it is a pretty good-sized puddle. Unique among lakes in this area, it has a recognized “shore path” that surrounds it. This single track path is publicly accessible year round. The path consists of varying surfaces throughout, from concrete to stepping stones to loose gravel to just plain grass. There are low spots where you are mere inches from the water and high spots that overlook the waves crashing against the shore.


The shore path is anywhere from 21 to 26 miles in total length, depending on the source consulted. This past Saturday, my wife and I set out to walk the entire path in a single go. We’d walked most of the path in segments over the course of the last several months. A few miles here, a few miles there, always an out and back approach. For the veteran thru-hikers out there, a 20-25 miles walk is rather routine. For us, though, we had no experience with such a hiking distance and we certainly didn’t do much of anything to train for it. We just decided to go for it and see how we’d do.

My wife is in far better physical condition than I am, that’s for sure. We’re both in our mid-40s and, while active, we’re certainly no athletes. I’m about 40lbs overweight, truth be told. At the beginning of 2016, we made a commitment to go hiking at least once a week and we’ve stuck to it. Haven’t missed a week yet. But again, those were mostly short walks. I think the longest may have been about 9 miles or so.

Knowing that we weren’t going to be out in the wild at all, we didn’t need to pack much for the hike. I loaded my Vertx EDC Gamut with the following:

Extra pair of socks
Two bottles of water
One bottle of soda
Shemagh
Sunglasses
Meds (ibuprofen, Tums, etc.)
Bandaids

For snacks, I had:
Trail mix
Chocolate covered cashews
Fruit Loop cereal
Grapes

My wife had a similar load out, though she went with a bit healthier food with mandarins, oranges, and such. Her pack came in at 8lbs and mine at 10lbs. All I carried in my pockets was a cell phone, my trusty Streamlight ProTac 1AAA flashlight, pocket knife, and the keys to our van. I wanted to travel as light as possible. I wasn’t sure how long the hike would take and the path isn’t lit at night so I felt the flashlight might be wise, just in case.


The lake is sort of long and narrow, stretching mostly east to west. That being the case, we parked the van at a state park that sits on the eastern edge of the lake and traveled clockwise. This meant the sun was almost always at our backs rather than in our faces. We started our trek at 9AM almost on the nose. The weather was sunny and cool, with temps in the low to mid 60s.


The first leg of our hike was the longest. We traveled roughly 9 miles in 3.5 hours. There are four towns along the path and the segment we did first was the longest distance between them. By the time we reached our first break point, we were certainly ready to sit down for a bit. My back was hurting just a bit but my legs were far better than I feared they’d be. We ate lunch in a park near the lake shore, taking full advantage of the restrooms while there. We also made sure to stretch our legs and backs before hitting the trail again.

We made it to our next stop in about two hours or so. I found throughout the hike that it was better to not look at a clock until we’d hit our destination. I knew the area pretty well, having grown up nearby, and could gauge fairly well where we were along the lake as we went along. Distances can be deceiving, though, because the roads around the lake don’t follow the same route as the path. So while I would know where we were in relation to the next town, it often took us quite a bit longer to get there than I’d have guessed.


At each rest stop, we made sure to take off our packs and stretch, concentrating on our ankles, legs, and backs. We stayed hydrated and munched on snacks as we went along.

By the time we made it to the last town, which left us about 2 miles to go to get back to our starting point, we were really feeling it. Our feet and legs were the worst. We both took a couple of ibuprofen when we were still a couple of miles out from the town, hoping it would kick in by the time we sat down for our last break. It was sobering to know that we could have made that final stretch of a couple of miles in matter of minutes with a vehicle but on foot we were looking at about another hour of walking.

We saddled up and finished the last leg just as the sun was setting. Checking our GPS when we reached our parking spot, we’d covered about 25 miles on foot in 9.5 hours. My wife kept pretty good record of our break times and such so we know we were actually walking for about 8 hours all told. We were wore out, tired, and sore. But, we were also damn proud of ourselves at having completed the hike.

The next day, we were both a little sore in spots but nothing at all like we’d feared we’d be. I had a pain in the back of my left leg that felt like a pulled muscle, but that’s about it. Not too shabby for an overweight old(ish) fart like myself.

Could I have hit the trail again the following morning? Probably, though I’d have been moving pretty slow. As the day went on, the aches and pains went away for the most part. Today, two days after the hike, I’m about 90% recovered. I sure wouldn’t want to have to do another 25 miles right now but probably could if I needed to do so. Again, though, this was without any sort of heavy pack. I don’t know that I’d have been able to complete the entire route while lugging a 30lb pack. Not in my current physical condition, at least. And I’m working on changing that, too.

I’ll say this, as well. The Vertx EDC Gamut pack was extremely comfortable the entire trip. While it wasn’t loaded down too badly, I see no issues with doing so. The padded straps were great and the pad along the back of the pack was awesome, too.

The takeaway here is this. If you plan to bug out on foot for any considerable distance, give it a dry run. See how well you hold up as the miles go on and on. Maybe you can only make it 5 miles, maybe only 3. That’s okay! The important thing is to know that NOW and take that into account as you make your plans. Do what you can to get yourself conditioned to walk longer distances, too. That won’t happen overnight but if you keep at it, you may be surprised at how quickly you can improve your stamina and such.